Category «Detox»

Is the nootropic drug modafinil likely to work for you?

Modafinil is being used as a nootropic drug that increases alertness and gives a sense of well being — to some users. Like most drugs, individual results seem to vary.  One reason for the variation is a common genetic variation in the COMT gene. Modafinil is a prescription medication (in the US) for decreasing daytime …

Why Allegra may not work as well for you: genetics of ABCB1 proteins (Patrons only)

Ever wonder why a certain medication may work great for a friend and do nothing for you?  One reason could be your genes. Let’s take fexofenadine (Allegra) for example.  You have watery eyes and a drippy nose during spring allergy season and pop an Allegra.  There is a lot that goes on in your body …

Detoxifying Phthalates:  Genes and Diet

There have been several recent studies about phthalates that have piqued my interest lately.  I decided that it was time to look into the science behind the stories and see if there really is anything to the scare-tactic type headlines about phthalates.  Below are my notes with links to studies.  I encourage you to check …

Phase II Detox – NATs

N-acetyltransferase is a phase II detoxification enzyme that helps to metabolize aromatic amines, drugs, cigarette smoke, and carcinogens. Basically, it makes specific toxins more water soluble so that they can be excreted through a process called acetylation. There are several common genetic variants that can classify a person as a slow, intermediate, or rapid acetylator. Although the rapid acetylator …

Detox Genes – NQO1

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in detoxification. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (abbreviated as NQO1) uses NADH or NADPH to reduce quinones to hydroquinones.   NQO1 is involved in breaking down exogenous (outside) toxins such as benzene and some chemotherapy drugs.  Benzene, a carcinogen, is found  in gasoline fumes, laundry detergent, …

Phase II detox – GSTs

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in detoxification. Another phase II detox reaction occurs with the glutathione S-transferases enzymes, which has eight classes identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta, and zeta.  The classes are abbreviated with their first letter (i.e. GSTMA for alpha).  These phase II enzymes add a …

Liver Detox Genes – CYP3A

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in detoxification. The CYP3A genes (which code for enzymes of the same name) is a subfamily of CYP 450 and is involved in the metabolism of about half the drugs on the market today as well as other xenobiotics and steroids.  There are several major …

Nrf2 Pathway: Increasing the body’s ability to get rid of toxins

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in detoxification. The Nrf2 signaling pathway regulates the expression of antioxidants and phase II detoxification enzymes. I think of it as flipping the switch to call up the phase II enzymes to take out the trash produced in phase I detox. The phase II …

Phase 2 Detoxification – UGTs

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in detoxification. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (abbreviated UGT) creates a glucuronidation reaction, which is a big part of Phase II detoxification.  Once a drug, toxin, or other substance is broken down in a Phase I reaction (see the CYP genes), the Phase II reactions further alter the …

Liver Detox Genes: CYP2C9 Genotypes and Drug Metabolism

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in Phase I detoxification. CYP2C9 metabolizes quite a few popular drugs (NSAIDs, warfarin, Viagra, Prozac) in the liver as well as linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and serotonin outside of the liver. There are several polymorphisms in the CYP2C9 gene that change the activity level …