Category «Detox»

Detoxifying Phthalates:  Genes and Diet

PhthalateGenetics

There have been several recent studies about phthalates that have piqued my interest lately.  I decided that it was time to look into the science behind the stories and see if there really is anything to the scare-tactic type headlines about phthalates.  Below are my notes with links to studies.  I encourage you to check …

Phase II Detox – NATs

N-acetyltransferase  is a phase II detoxification enzyme that helps to metabolize aromatic amines, drugs, cigarette smoke and carcinogens.  It is also involved in the folate cycle.  In the 50’s, it was recognized to play a role in the metabolism of tuberculosis drug.  A significant percentage of people were found to be poor acetylators resulting in …

Detox Genes – NQO1

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in detoxification. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (abbreviated as NQO1) uses NADH or NADPH to reduce quinones to hydroquinones.   NQO1 is involved in breaking down exogenous (outside) toxins such as benzene and some chemotherapy drugs.  Benzene, a carcinogen, is found  in gasoline fumes, laundry detergent, …

Phase II detox – GSTs

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in detoxification. Another phase II detox reaction occurs with the glutathione S-transferases enzymes, which has eight classes identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta, and zeta.  The classes are abbreviated with their first letter (i.e. GSTMA for alpha).  These phase II enzymes add a …

Liver Detox Genes – CYP3A

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in detoxification. The CYP3A genes (which code for enzymes of the same name) is a subfamily of CYP 450 and is involved in the metabolism of about half the drugs on the market today as well as other xenobiotics and steroids.  There are several major …

Nrf2 Pathway

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in detoxification. The Nrf2 signaling pathway regulates the expression of antioxidants and phase II detoxification enzymes.  In my mind, it flips the switch to call up the phase II enzymes to take out the trash produced in phase I detox.  The phase II enzymes …

Phase 2 Detoxification – UGTs

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in detoxification. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (abbreviated UGT) creates a glucuronidation reaction, which is a big part of Phase II detoxification.  Once a drug, toxin, or other substance is broken down in a Phase I reaction (see the CYP genes), the Phase II reactions further alter the …

Liver Detox Genes: CYP2C9 Genotypes and Drug Metabolism

Liver DetoxGenes

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in Phase I detoxification. CYP2C9 metabolizes quite a few popular drugs (NSAIDs, warfarin, Viagra, Prozac) in the liver as well as linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and serotonin outside of the liver. There are several polymorphisms in the CYP2C9 gene that change the activity level …

Liver Detox Genes – CYP2D6

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in detoxification. The CYP2D6 enzymes metabolize about 25% of pharmaceutical drugs such as SSRI’s, opioids, tamoxifen, Nyquil, and beta blockers.  It also metabolizes serotonin and neurosteroids (pregnanolone, cholesterol, androsterone, etc). There are several important polymorphisms in CYP2D6 which cause either extensive or very poor metabolism …

Liver Detox Genes – CYP2A6

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in Phase I detoxification. The CYP2A6 enzyme is involved in the metabolism of nicotine, several cancer drugs,  valproic acid, and coumarin. (Full list of drugs on Wikipedia). The hormone estradiol is an inducer of CYP2A6, and women usually have a somewhat higher activity of this …