Detox

CYP3A4 and CYP3A5: Genes that Impact Drug Metabolism

Our bodies break down (metabolize) drugs and other toxins through a group of enzymes known as the CYP450 family. Different CYP enzymes break down different substances, and we all carry genetic variants that can impact whether we metabolize a drug quickly or slowly. The CYP3A genes (which code for enzymes of the same name) is a subfamily of CYP 450 and is involved in the metabolism of about half the drugs on the market today as well as other xenobiotics and steroids.  There are several major genetic polymorphisms in the CYP3A family that can play a role in how a person reacts to a medication. Several fruits - grapefruit, noni, pomegranate - are potent inhibitors of CYP3A4.  Eating or drinking these can cause adverse effects on drug metabolism, either increasing the efficiency of the drug or decreasing the effect. (more…)

By Debbie Moon, ago
Detox

CYP2C19 – Metabolizing medications

The CYP2C19 enzyme is responsible for the breakdown of several popular drugs including proton pump inhibitors (Prilosec, Nexium, Prevacid), certain anti-epileptics, and an antiplatelet drug (Plavix).  CYP2C19 is also involved in activating and breaking down some hormones such as progesterone. There are variants of the CYP2C19 gene that cause some people to be poor metabolizers and others to be fast metabolizers. You can have increased side effects (depending on the medication) either from being a slow metabolizer or a fast metabolizer.   For example, a fast metabolizer taking omeprazole to treat h. pylori may have an insufficient response due to the drug not remaining active in the body long enough.[ref]  Alternatively, some drugs such as Plavix are converted into their active drug state through CYP2C19, and being a poor metabolizer could mean that Plavix (an anticoagulant) isn't activated quickly enough. [ref] (more…)

By Debbie Moon, ago
Detox

Liver Detox Genes: CYP2C9 Genotypes and Drug Metabolism

Have you ever wondered why certain medications don't work well for you? Genetic variants can change how fast or how slow the medication is broken down in your body. CYP2C9 is a gene that codes for an enzyme that metabolizes quite a few medications in the liver as well as linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and serotonin outside of the liver.[ref] Some of the most prescribed drugs metabolized with CYP2C9 include losartan (blood pressure), Warfarin, acenocoumarol, tolbutamide (Orinase), glipizide (Glucotrol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), celecoxib (Celebrex), montelukast (Singulair), naproxen (Aleve).  A complete list can be found on Pharmacy Times. (more…)

By Debbie Moon, ago
Detox

Phase II Detox – NATs

N-acetyltransferase is a phase II detoxification enzyme that helps to metabolize aromatic amines, drugs, cigarette smoke, and carcinogens. Basically, it makes specific toxins more water soluble so that they can be excreted through a process called acetylation. Read more…

By Debbie Moon, ago
Detox

Detox Genes – NQO1

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in detoxification. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (abbreviated as NQO1) uses NADH or NADPH to reduce quinones to hydroquinones.   NQO1 is involved in breaking down Read more…

By Debbie Moon, ago
Detox

Phase II detox – GSTs

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in detoxification. Another phase II detox reaction occurs with the glutathione S-transferases enzymes, which has eight classes identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta, Read more…

By Debbie Moon, ago


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