Category «Phase II Detox»

Phase II Detox – NATs

N-acetyltransferase  is a phase II detoxification enzyme that helps to metabolize aromatic amines, drugs, cigarette smoke and carcinogens.  It is also involved in the folate cycle.  In the 50’s, it was recognized to play a role in the metabolism of tuberculosis drug.  A significant percentage of people were found to be poor acetylators resulting in …

Detox Genes – NQO1

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in detoxification. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (abbreviated as NQO1) uses NADH or NADPH to reduce quinones to hydroquinones.   NQO1 is involved in breaking down exogenous (outside) toxins such as benzene and some chemotherapy drugs.  Benzene, a carcinogen, is found  in gasoline fumes, laundry detergent, …

Phase II detox – GSTs

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in detoxification. Another phase II detox reaction occurs with the glutathione S-transferases enzymes, which has eight classes identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta, and zeta.  The classes are abbreviated with their first letter (i.e. GSTMA for alpha).  These phase II enzymes add a …

Nrf2 Pathway

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in detoxification. The Nrf2 signaling pathway regulates the expression of antioxidants and phase II detoxification enzymes.  In my mind, it flips the switch to call up the phase II enzymes to take out the trash produced in phase I detox.  The phase II enzymes …

Phase 2 Detoxification – UGTs

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in detoxification. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (abbreviated UGT) creates a glucuronidation reaction, which is a big part of Phase II detoxification.  Once a drug, toxin, or other substance is broken down in a Phase I reaction (see the CYP genes), the Phase II reactions further alter the …