Will statins give you muscle pain? What your genes can tell you.

Statins are used by tens of millions of people worldwide for lowering cholesterol levels.[ref] They nearly always top the list of most prescribed medications in the US, with Lipitor as the most prescribed drug as of July 2019. [article] One side effect of statins…

Glyphosate: Interaction with Genetics

RoundUp is the most widely used herbicide in the world. It is made by Monsanto, which is now owned by Bayer. Glyphosate is the active ingredient in RoundUp, and it will kill most broadleaf plants and grasses. [ref] Glyphosate works by blocking the shikimate…

CYP2C19 – Metabolizing medications

The CYP2C19 enzyme is responsible for the breakdown of several popular drugs including proton pump inhibitors (Prilosec, Nexium, Prevacid), certain anti-epileptics, and an antiplatelet drug (Plavix).  CYP2C19 is also involved in activating and breaking down some hormones such as progesterone. There are variants of…

Liver Detox Genes: CYP2C9 Genotypes and Drug Metabolism

Have you ever wondered why certain medications don’t work well for you? Genetic variants can change how fast or how slow the medication is broken down in your body. CYP2C9 is a gene that codes for an enzyme that metabolizes quite a few medications…

CYP2D6: Metabolism of many OTC and prescription medicines

Say you aren’t feeling well, have had a cold for a week, and can’t sleep…  You’re just plain miserable.  And in your sleep deprived state, you decide to take some Nyquil (or another cough syrup containing dextromethorphan). Some people may get relief and finally get…

CYP2A6: Breaking down nicotine and other medications

The CYP450 family of enzymes is produced by the body to break down and eliminate substances. These enzymes metabolize both substances produced within the body, such as estrogen, and on toxicants that we are exposed to, such as medications and pollutants. CYP2A6 is part…

CYP1A2 – Breaking down caffeine and more

The CYP1A2 enzyme is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics (caffeine, aflatoxin B1, and acetaminophen) and is induced by the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH’s) that are found in cigarette smoke.  It metabolizes some pro-carcinogens into carcinogenic intermediates. CYP1A2 is also induced (activated) by cruciferous…

CYP1A1: Detoxifying Cigarette Smoke and Estrogen

This is part of a series on the genes involved in phase I and phase II detoxification. CYP1A1 is a gene that codes for an enzyme that breaks down (metabolizes) a few different substances.  It is involved in the metabolism of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the…