NQO1 Gene: Metabolism of quinones, benzene, and more

Your genes code for the enzymes that break down the toxic substances that we all encounter each day. This ability to clear out potential carcinogens is important when it comes to preventing cancer. The NQO1 gene codes for an enzyme that breaks down quinones,…

Phase II Detox – NATs

N-acetyltransferase is a phase II detoxification enzyme that helps to metabolize aromatic amines, drugs, cigarette smoke, and carcinogens. Basically, it makes specific toxins more water soluble so that they can be excreted through a process called acetylation. There are several common genetic variants that can classify…

Phase II detox – GSTs

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in detoxification. Another phase II detox reaction occurs with the glutathione S-transferases enzymes, which has eight classes identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta, and zeta.  The classes are abbreviated with their first…

Nrf2 Pathway: Increasing the body’s ability to get rid of toxins

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in detoxification. The Nrf2 (Nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor) signaling pathway regulates the expression of antioxidants and phase II detoxification enzymes. This is a fundamental pathway that is important in how well your…

Phase 2 Detoxification – UGTs

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in detoxification. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (abbreviated UGT) creates a glucuronidation reaction, which is a big part of phase II detoxification.  Once a drug, toxin, or other substance is broken down in a phase I reaction…