Hearing Loss, Mitochondrial Function, and Sirtuins

Your mitochondria (the ‘powerhouse of the cell’) are vital to healthy longevity. Many chronic illnesses, as well as just general problems associated with aging, are due to a decline in mitochondrial function. Quick overview of the mitochondria: Within the mitochondria, molecules are converted into…

MTHFR Polymorphisms – Beyond 677

Going beyond MTHFR 677 and 1298 If you are just getting started with researching your MTHFR polymorphisms, you may want to start with some background information.  I have a list of resources on the MTHFR page that you might find helpful. MTHFR is a…

Phase II Detox – NA/Ts

N-acetyltransferase is a phase II detoxification enzyme that helps to metabolize aromatic amines, drugs, cigarette smoke, and carcinogens. Basically, it makes specific toxins more water soluble so that they can be excreted through a process called acetylation. There are several common genetic variants that can classify a…

ADHD, pesticides, and genetic polymorphisms

A recent article on Science Daily caught my eye: Study links exposure to common pesticides to ADHD in boys.  The article goes on to describe a study that links exposure to pyrethroid to ADHD, especially in boys. Pyrethroid is a generic term for an organic…

Detox Genes – NQO1

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in detoxification. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (abbreviated as NQO1) uses NADH or NADPH to reduce quinones to hydroquinones.   NQO1 is involved in breaking down exogenous (outside) toxins such as benzene and some chemotherapy…

Phase II detox – GSTs

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in detoxification. Another phase II detox reaction occurs with the glutathione S-transferases enzymes, which has eight classes identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta, and zeta.  The classes are abbreviated with their first…

Nrf2 Pathway: Increasing the body’s ability to get rid of toxins

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in detoxification. The Nrf2 signaling pathway regulates the expression of antioxidants and phase II detoxification enzymes. I think of it as flipping the switch to call up the phase II enzymes to take…

Liver Detox Genes – CYP2E1

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in detoxification. The CYP2E1 gene codes for an enzyme (of the same name) that is involved in the metabolism of several important drugs as well as the conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde.  CYP2E1…

Phase 2 Detoxification – UGTs

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in detoxification. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (abbreviated UGT) creates a glucuronidation reaction, which is a big part of phase II detoxification.  Once a drug, toxin, or other substance is broken down in a phase I reaction…

Liver Detox Genes – CYP2A6

This is part of an ongoing series on the genes involved in Phase I detoxification. The CYP2A6 enzyme is involved in the metabolism of nicotine, several cancer drugs,  valproic acid, and coumarin. (Full list of drugs on Wikipedia). The hormone estradiol is an inducer of…