Vertigo, constant ringing, and nausea… It sounds like a trip on a roller coaster after drinking a cherry slushie! It describes everyday life for many people with Meniere’s disease, an inner ear disorder causing vertigo and tinnitus or ringing in the ear. Meniere’s can also cause pressure in the ear and possible hearing loss, most often striking people in their 40s and 50s.
So let’s dig into the incurable disease with no discernible cause… looking at the most up-to-date research and examining the genetic links. Additionally, we will look at tinnitus on its own – and as a part of Meniere’s. I’ll round out this article with the research on solutions for Meniere’s disease and tinnitus.
Meniere’s, tinnitus, and how the ear works:
Let’s start with some background information on how the ear works – and how this ties into balance.
Your balance is coordinated by the change in motion of the fluid in the inner ear. It is like a built-in accelerometer that knows when you are in motion. Peripheral vertigo, or feeling dizzy and off-balance, is due to inner ear dysfunction. The sense of balance gets messed up by signals sent to the brain that doesn’t match reality.
Within the inner ear, a spiral-shaped cavity called the cochlea is dedicated to hearing. Also, the inner ear contains the vestibular system responsible for your balance.[ref] So, you can imagine that something disturbing and pressing on the vestibular system could cause vertigo and impact hearing.
Endolymph is the fluid inside the inner ear. This fluid moves and transmits sounds, movement, etc., to the brain. The makeup of the ions in that fluid is essential for transmitting signals to the brain. The endolymph within the cochlea has a very low calcium (Ca2+) concentration, which allows better mechanoelectrical transduction with the little hair cells in the cochlea.[ref]
Here is a picture of the ear’s structure so you can visualize where the inner ear is – with the vestibular area and the cochlea. (Creative Commons License- Wikimedia commons.):
What is going wrong in Meniere’s disease?
Researchers think too much potassium (K+) in the inner ear causes too much endolymph in the vestibular organ. Any excess fluid is normally stored in an endolymphatic sac. In Meniere’s, the storage sac is thought to fill up with too much fluid, ballooning and pressing on the hearing parts of the ear, causing hearing loss. A rupture of the membrane in this area can cause severe vertigo.
Often the symptoms in Meniere’s fluctuate, with the vertigo attacks suddenly becoming severe to the point of causing nausea and vomiting. The attacks sometimes may be preceded by changes in tinnitus, hearing, and the ear feeling full.[ref]
The membrane can heal up pretty quickly, leading to a cycle of increasing fluid and eventual rupture. Tinnitus and vertigo can fluctuate during the cycle when the fluid is building back up again.
Digging a little deeper:
So what do potassium and other ions have to do with fluid in the ear? Think back to osmosis experiments in high school science class… fluid can be drawn across a membrane to balance out ions.
The endolymph fluid has a different ion concentration and pH from the rest of the ear. The sodium concentration is higher, and the potassium and chloride concentrations are lower. Researchers think the ion gradient gets messed up (too much potassium), which is then balanced out with more fluid, causing swelling.
The cells surrounding the endolymphatic sac have receptors activated by cortisol and receptors sensitive to aldosterone. Aldosterone is the hormone that controls the absorption of salt in the kidneys and is important in blood pressure.[ref] This ties Meniere’s to blood pressure and stress (cortisol).
This general explanation of Meniere’s disease may not be the whole story. Researchers note that some people have swelling within the endolymph system and don’t have the symptoms of Meniere’s. They also question whether the swelling can actually cause vertigo.[ref] Questions remain on what triggers Meniere’s.
Theories on the cause(s) of Meniere’s Disease:
The symptoms and progression of the disease vary a lot from person to person, making any single root cause of Meniere’s disease hard to pin down.
Some scientists postulate that Meniere’s is an autoimmune condition due to elevated antibody titers and higher levels of circulating immune complexes. People with autoimmune diseases are also more likely to have more severe Meniere’s disease.[ref][ref] Certain HLA serotypes are associated with an increased risk of Meniere’s disease, adding to the evidence that it is autoimmune related.[ref]
Other researchers point to Meniere’s being multifactorial with causes including adrenal insufficiency, hypothyroidism, narrowing of the inner auditory canal, trauma, and allergies.[ref]
Genetic mutations and a familial aspect of Meniere’s disease are other lines of investigation.[ref] The genetic variants linked with Meniere’s point towards the body’s immune and inflammatory response as well as potassium regulation.
All of these together point to a system that is out of balance.
Conditions that overlap with Meniere’s:
Meniere’s disease is linked to an increased risk of both migraines and motion sickness.[ref]
Migraine prevalence in Meniere’s is double that of the population in general.[ref]
People with rheumatoid arthritis are at a (slightly) increased risk of Meniere’s disease.[ref]
One study found that patients who didn’t respond to diuretics were more likely to respond to medications used to prevent migraines.[ref]
A study of 35 patients with Meniere’s disease found that 12 were clinically hypothyroid. Treating them with thyroid medication improved Meniere’s symptoms in all of the hypothyroid patients.[ref]
Allergies and histamine are also linked to Meniere’s
What if it is ‘just’ tinnitus and not Meniere’s?
Tinnitus is a sensation described as ‘ringing in the ears’ or a constant buzzing pitch.
In addition to being a symptom of Meniere’s disease, tinnitus can also accompany other hearing loss diseases or can occur spontaneously. It is thought to affect up to 15% of adults at some point in their lives affecting both their quality of life and mental health.
Is tinnitus genetic?
Partly. Genetic variants do seem to play a role in the susceptibility to tinnitus, but environmental factors – such as lifestyle factors that cause inflammation – also are important here.
Researchers often study twins, siblings, and adoptees to determine whether a condition, such as tinnitus is ‘heritable’ or has a genetic component. In a large study in Sweden, researchers discovered that adoptees who had a biological parent with tinnitus were over twice as likely to have tinnitus. The researchers also noted no association between tinnitus in an adopted parent and adoptee, thus making the childhood environment an unlikely factor.[ref]
What causes tinnitus?
Researchers think ion regulation – specifically potassium transport – could be at the root of tinnitus.[ref] Other research points towards inflammation.
New studies using animal models of hearing impairment show that neuroinflammation may be a part of the picture for tinnitus and hearing loss. Blocking TNF-α prevents neuroinflammation and tinnitus in a mouse model.[ref]
Other studies point to IL-1B (interleukin 1 beta), a proinflammatory cytokine, as a risk factor.[ref]
Human studies show that inflammatory markers are important in tinnitus. A 2019 study in Portuguese adults found that IL10 was lower in tinnitus patients. IL-10 (interleukin 10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine limiting your body’s inflammatory response. Thus low IL-10 could lead to higher inflammation. Accordingly, the researchers found that IL-1a, an inflammatory cytokine, was higher in participants with tonal tinnitus.[ref]
Salicylates and tinnitus:
In animal research, sodium salicylate, the sodium salt of salicylic acid (aspirin), is often given to animals to create tinnitus. Higher doses of aspirin can cause (or worsen) tinnitus in some people. Animal studies have shown that salicylate blocks a certain type of calcium channel in the inner ear. It could then cause decreased GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, in the inner ear.[ref]
The thought here is that not enough inhibition = constant firing of the neurons and tinnitus. GABA inhibits the excess firing, while glutamate can increase the neuron’s firing potential. Thus, alternatively, the salicylate could increase the neurons’ firing rate in the auditory nerve complex.[ref]
The following genetic variants have been associated with Meniere’s or tinnitus in research studies. Note that a lot of the research is new, and hopefully, there will be more research coming out in the future on both topics.
Meniere’s Disease Genes:
NFKB1 gene: codes for part of the nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κB) protein, which regulates inflammatory response. NF-κB is activated by cytokines and causes an increase in inflammatory markers.
Check your genetic data for rs3774937 (23andMe v4; AncestryDNA):
- C/C: faster progression to hearing loss in Meniere’s[ref]
- C/T: faster progression to hearing loss in Meniere’s
- T/T: typical
Members: Your genotype for rs3774937 is —.
Check your genetic data for rs4648011 (23andMe v4 only):
- G/G: faster progression to hearing loss in Meniere’s[ref]
- G/T: faster progression to hearing loss in Meniere’s
- T/T: typical
Members: Your genotype for rs4648011 is —.
Between Genes Region: An intergenic region that likely impacts tumor necrosis factor pathways and induces the translation of NF-kB.[ref]
Check your genetic data for rs4947296 (23andMe v4, v5; AncestryDNA):
- C/C: 2-fold risk of Meniere’s, related to inflammation, higher NFKB1 levels[ref]
- C/T: increased risk of Meniere’s
- T/T: typical
Members: Your genotype for rs4947296 is —.
KCNE1 gene: codes for a potassium channel protein that regulates the influx of potassium ions into a cell
Check your genetic data for rs1805127 (23andMe v4, v5; AncestryDNA):
- C/C: typical
- C/T: somewhat increased risk of Meniere’s (fairly common variant)
- T/T: increased risk of Meniere’s disease[ref][ref] associated with kidney disease in Meniere’s patients[ref]
Members: Your genotype for rs1805127 is —.
KCNE3 gene: another potassium channel protein
Check your genetic data for rs2270676 (23andMe v4, v5; AncestryDNA):
- A/A: typical
- A/G: somewhat increased risk of Meniere’s
- G/G: increased risk of Meniere’s disease[ref]
Members: Your genotype for rs2270676 is —.
HRH4 gene: genetic variants in the histamine receptor 4 (HRH4) gene have been implicated in an increased risk of Meniere’s. The rs id (rs77485247 ) is not found in 23andMe or AncestryDNA data, but this genetic connection does explain a connection between histamine and the immune system in Meniere’s disease.[ref]
IL1A gene: codes for interleukin-1A, a proinflammatory cytokine that increases inflammation
Check your genetic data for rs1800587 -889C/T (23andMe v4, v5; AncestryDNA):
- A/A: typical
- A/G: significantly increased risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss
- G/G: significantly increased risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss[ref]
Members: Your genotype for rs1800587 is —.
ADD1 gene: codes for the adductin-1 protein, which is important in blood pressure regulation
Check your genetic data for rs4961 G460W (23andMe v4, v5; AncestryDNA):
- G/G: typical
- G/T: increased risk of tinnitus. increased risk of hypertension
- T/T: increased risk of tinnitus[ref], increased risk of hypertension[ref]
Members: Your genotype for rs4961 is —.
IL1A gene: codes for interleukin-1A, a proinflammatory cytokine that increases inflammation (NOTE – this overlaps with the IL1A variant in the Meniere’s genes section)
Check your genetic data for rs1800587 (23andMe v4, v5; AncestryDNA):
- A/A: typical
- A/G: somewhat increased risk of tinnitus
- G/G: increased risk of tinnitus[ref]
Members: Your genotype for rs1800587 is —.
Lifehacks for Meniere’s:
Modulating NF-κB (NFKB1 variants):
NF-κB is a transcription factor that is responsible for activating and controlling the immune response.[ref] The genetic variants in the NFKB1 and the intergenic region show a definite link between NF-κB (nuclear factor – kappa beta) and Meniere’s disease for some people.
NF-κB is activated by cytokines such as TNFα and IL-1β. Thus, targeting chronic inflammation may help with Meniere’s.
Related Article: TNFα and inflammation lifehacks
Mold has been shown in one study to trigger “a significant release of TNF-α in [Meniere’s Disease] patients, which were not found in controls.”[ref] Consider testing your home and workplace for mold and getting mold remediation done if needed.
Heat therapy, such as sauna, increases heat shock proteins. This increase in heat shock proteins then helps modulate inflammatory stress by decreasing the activation of NF-κB.[ref] Specifically, repeatedly activating heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) leads “to the inactivation of downstream of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inflammation signaling pathway.”[ref]
You may be wondering if there is any clinical evidence that sauna decreases the symptoms of Meniere’s disease… This method doesn’t seem to be well studied. One case study from 1977 showed that sauna visits improved Meniere’s disease for the two participants.[ref]
Vitamin D deficiency and autoimmunity (everyone):
In people who are vitamin D deficient, increasing vitamin D through supplements or increased sun exposure may prove helpful for Meniere’s disease. Researchers theorize the improving vitamin D levels helps by modulating the immune response. Additionally, vitamin D deficiency doubles the risk for benign positional vertigo. For people who suspect that either inflammation or an autoimmune reaction is at the root of their Meniere’s disease, vitamin D is an easy solution to try, especially if you are deficient.[ref][ref][ref]
Cutting down on salt, caffeine, alcohol – maybe (KCNE1, KCNE3 variants):
Traditionally, patients have been encouraged to decrease or eliminate the consumption of salt, caffeine, and alcohol to improve Meniere’s symptoms. I think the idea here is that caffeine could cause vasoconstriction and that decreasing salt may decrease the fluid in the ear.[ref]
A recent Cochrane study concluded, though, that there is no evidence “from randomized controlled trials to support or refute the restriction of salt, caffeine or alcohol intake in patients with Ménière’s disease or syndrome.”[ref]
If you carry the genetic variants above in the KCNE1 and KCNE3 genes, these variants impact potassium transport across the cell membrane—sodium and chloride from table salt balance out the potassium ions. Even though there aren’t thorough randomized clinical trials to support restricting salt, this would be an easy lifestyle change to try.
Experiment with altering your salt consumption – keeping track of the amount of sodium you consume and your Meniere’s or tinnitus symptoms. Another experiment would be to track your potassium intake and see if it impacts symptoms.
The website and app cronometer.com are free and make it easy to sodium and potassium from foods. You can also add notes to track your symptoms.
Turkey Tail mushrooms (NFKB1, IL1A genes):
A study looked at the systemic effects of turkey tail mushroom extract (Coriolus versicolor) in relation to the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in people with Meniere’s disease. The turkey tail extract was found to increase Hsp70 (heat shock protein), Sirt1, and glutathione synthesis proteins (antioxidants), which should be helpful in Meniere’s.[ref]
Food allergies and inhalant allergies are common in people with Meniere’s disease. Interestingly, gliadin, a wheat component, was often an allergic trigger in people with Meniere’s.[ref] If you haven’t pursued allergy testing, this may be something to talk with your doctor about. Either avoiding an allergen or immunotherapy may help.
Research shows that reversing hypothyroidism can help with Meniere’s symptoms.[ref]
If you suspect that you could have low thyroid function, talk with your doctor about getting your thyroid tested. You can also order the testing yourself in the US, but you would still need to see a doctor if you need a prescription for thyroid medications.)
Lifehacks for tinnitus:
Melatonin as an antioxidant (IL1A and NFKB1 gene variants):
A clinical trial with 24 participants looked at the impact of supplemental melatonin on tinnitus. The results showed that 3 mg/night of melatonin improved both sleep quality and tinnitus score.[ref] Another larger clinical trial compared melatonin to sertraline (Zoloft) and found that both statistically improved tinnitus but that melatonin was more effective than sertraline.[ref]
If you want to try supplemental melatonin, a timed-release formula better mimics the body’s gradual release of melatonin throughout the night. Alternatively, you can block out light in the blue wavelengths (such as from TV, laptops, phones, and overhead lights) each evening before bed using glasses that block 100% of blue light. This simple approach has been shown to increase overnight melatonin levels in most people.
Related article: Supplemental Melatonin
Check your blood pressure (ADD1 gene variants):
Higher blood pressure at night has been found in people with tinnitus.[ref] Before you go to bed in the evening, check your blood pressure to see if it is elevated. If it is, talk with your doctor about your options for lowering blood pressure. Or, if you already take blood pressure medication, talk with your doctor about taking the medication before bed instead of in the morning.
Trigger point therapy or acupressure (everyone):
A double-blind, randomized clinical trial of patients with tinnitus and myofascial pain syndrome found that trigger point therapy effectively relieved tinnitus.[ref] Another study linked tinnitus to myofascial trigger points in the head, neck, and shoulders.[ref]
So, where are the magic spots to push on to relieve tinnitus? Check out this article on ear acupressure points for tinnitus.
Improve your neck posture (everyone):
A case report details that 20 years of tinnitus for one patient was likely related to his neck posture. A cervical collar was the key for him, and it resolved the treatment-resistant tinnitus within weeks.[ref] While a cervical collar may be an extreme practice for most people, improving your posture may help. It seems like so many of us today have bent necks from looking at a computer or phone screen all the time.
Medications as a cause?
Check to see if any of your medications, especially NSAIDs and aspirin, could be adding to your tinnitus or vertigo.
There’s an app for that:
Can listening to the right musical wavelengths help with your tinnitus? Researchers in 2016 used tailor-made notched music delivered through a phone app for 30-60 minutes per day. Added to that was a supplement of Ginkgo biloba. This combination was found to be effective in improving tinnitus scores. [ref]
Supplements and therapies:
- Ginkgo Biloba has been studied fairly extensively for its effect on tinnitus. While a few studies show positive results, most of the studies show no real effect.[ref][ref]
- Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been shown in a study to be effective in reducing tinnitus in people with TMJ (jaw joint) problems. The LLLT was used at 1064 mn and 810 nm wavelengths.[ref]
- Taurine: An animal study showed that adding taurine to the drinking water attenuated tinnitus in mice exposed to long periods of loud noise. Taking the taurine away then caused the tinnitus to come back…[ref]
- Vitamin B12: People deficient in B12 may find that supplemental B12 will help their tinnitus.[ref]
Related Articles and Topics:
Mast Cells: MCAS, Genetics, and Solutions
Mast cells are an important part of your innate immune system. They are front-line defenders against pathogens and allergens. For some people, mast cells can be triggered too easily, giving allergy-like responses to lots of different substances.
TNF-Alpha: Higher innate levels of this inflammatory cytokine
Do you feel like you are always dealing with inflammation? Joint pain, food sensitivity, etc.? Perhaps you are genetically geared towards a higher inflammatory response. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is an inflammatory cytokine that acts as a signaling molecule in our immune system.
Chronic headaches, sinus drainage, itchy hives, problems staying asleep, and heartburn — all of these symptoms can be caused by the body not breaking down histamine very well. Your genetic variants could be causing you to be more sensitive to foods high in histamine. Check your genetic data to see if this could be at the root of your symptoms.
Inflammation: Causes and Natural Solutions
Take a deep dive into the causes of chronic inflammation and learn how to target specific inflammatory pathways to reverse or prevent chronic disease.
Abtahi, Seyed Hamidreza, et al. “Comparison of Melatonin and Sertraline Therapies on Tinnitus: A Randomized Clinical Trial.” International Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 8, 2017, p. 61. PubMed, https://doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_229_17.
Ban, Ju Yeon, et al. “Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles in Response to Treatment with Melatonin in Lipopolysaccharide Activated RAW 264.7 Cells.” The Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology : Official Journal of the Korean Physiological Society and the Korean Society of Pharmacology, vol. 15, no. 1, Feb. 2011, pp. 23–29. PubMed Central, https://doi.org/10.4196/kjpp.2011.15.1.23.
Brunt, Vienna E., et al. “Passive Heat Therapy Protects against Endothelial Cell Hypoxia-Reoxygenation via Effects of Elevations in Temperature and Circulating Factors.” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 596, no. 20, Oct. 2018, pp. 4831–45. PubMed, https://doi.org/10.1113/JP276559.
Büki, Béla, et al. “The Price of Immune Responses and the Role of Vitamin D in the Inner Ear.” Otology & Neurotology: Official Publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology, vol. 40, no. 6, July 2019, pp. 701–09. PubMed, https://doi.org/10.1097/MAO.0000000000002258.
Büki, Bela, et al. “Vitamin D Supplementation May Improve Symptoms in Meniere’s Disease.” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 116, July 2018, pp. 44–46. PubMed Central, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2018.04.019.
Cabrera, Sonia, et al. “Intronic Variants in the NFKB1 Gene May Influence Hearing Forecast in Patients with Unilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Meniere’s Disease.” PloS One, vol. 9, no. 11, 2014, p. e112171. PubMed, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112171.
Cederroth, Christopher R., et al. “Association of Genetic vs Environmental Factors in Swedish Adoptees With Clinically Significant Tinnitus.” JAMA Otolaryngology– Head & Neck Surgery, vol. 145, no. 3, Mar. 2019, pp. 222–29. PubMed, https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaoto.2018.3852.
Cronometer: Track Nutrition & Count Calories. https://cronometer.com/. Accessed 13 Apr. 2022.
Dabiri, Sasan, et al. “HLA-Cw Allele Frequency in Definite Meniere’s Disease Compared to Probable Meniere’s Disease and Healthy Controls in an Iranian Sample.” Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, vol. 28, no. 87, July 2016, pp. 262–66.
Ding, Jing, et al. “Serum Levels of 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Correlate with Idiopathic Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo.” Bioscience Reports, vol. 39, no. 4, Apr. 2019, p. BSR20190142. PubMed Central, https://doi.org/10.1042/BSR20190142.
Doi, Katsumi, et al. “Ménière’s Disease Is Associated with Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Human Potassium Channel Genes, KCNE1 and KCNE3.” ORL; Journal for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology and Its Related Specialties, vol. 67, no. 5, 2005, pp. 289–93. PubMed, https://doi.org/10.1159/000089410.
Frejo, Lidia, Alvaro Gallego-Martinez, et al. “Proinflammatory Cytokines and Response to Molds in Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Meniere Disease.” Scientific Reports, vol. 8, no. 1, Apr. 2018, p. 5974. PubMed, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-23911-4.
Frejo, Lidia, Teresa Requena, et al. “Regulation of Fn14 Receptor and NF-ΚB Underlies Inflammation in Meniere’s Disease.” Frontiers in Immunology, vol. 8, Dec. 2017, p. 1739. PubMed Central, https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.01739.
Furuta, T., et al. “Association of Interleukin-1 Gene Polymorphisms with Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Ménière’s Disease.” International Journal of Immunogenetics, vol. 38, no. 3, June 2011, pp. 249–54. PubMed, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-313X.2011.01004.x.
Gazquez, Irene, et al. “High Prevalence of Systemic Autoimmune Diseases in Patients with Menière’s Disease.” PloS One, vol. 6, no. 10, 2011, p. e26759. PubMed, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026759.
Ghavami, Yaser, et al. “Evaluating Quality of Life in Patients With Meniere’s Disease Treated as Migraine.” The Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology, vol. 127, no. 12, Dec. 2018, pp. 877–87. PubMed, https://doi.org/10.1177/0003489418799107.
Golding, John F., and Mitesh Patel. “Meniere’s, Migraine, and Motion Sickness.” Acta Oto-Laryngologica, vol. 137, no. 5, May 2017, pp. 495–502. Taylor and Francis+NEJM, https://doi.org/10.1080/00016489.2016.1255775.
Haider, Haúla F., et al. “Tinnitus, Hearing Loss and Inflammatory Processes in an Older Portuguese Population.” International Journal of Audiology, vol. 59, no. 5, Apr. 2020, pp. 323–32. Taylor and Francis+NEJM, https://doi.org/10.1080/14992027.2019.1698775.
Herman, L. E., et al. “Diaphoresis and Meniere’s Disease.” Archives of Otolaryngology (Chicago, Ill.: 1960), vol. 103, no. 12, Dec. 1977, pp. 700–04. PubMed, https://doi.org/10.1001/archotol.1977.00780290036002.
Hietikko, Elina, Jouko Kotimäki, et al. “A Replication Study on Proposed Candidate Genes in Ménière’s Disease, and a Review of the Current Status of Genetic Studies.” International Journal of Audiology, vol. 51, no. 11, Nov. 2012, pp. 841–45. PubMed, https://doi.org/10.3109/14992027.2012.705900.
Hietikko, Elina, Martti Sorri, et al. “Higher Prevalence of Autoimmune Diseases and Longer Spells of Vertigo in Patients Affected with Familial Ménière’s Disease: A Clinical Comparison of Familial and Sporadic Ménière’s Disease.” American Journal of Audiology, vol. 23, no. 2, June 2014, pp. 232–37. PubMed, https://doi.org/10.1044/2014_AJA-13-0060.
Hussain, Kiran, et al. “Restriction of Salt, Caffeine and Alcohol Intake for the Treatment of Ménière’s Disease or Syndrome.” The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 2018, no. 12, Dec. 2018, p. CD012173. PubMed Central, https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012173.pub2.
Ledesma, Alleluia Lima Losno, et al. Caffeine and Meniere’s Disease. IntechOpen, 2017. www.intechopen.com, https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.69667.
Li, Yan, et al. “Cardiovascular Risk in Relation to Alpha-Adducin Gly460Trp Polymorphism and Systolic Pressure: A Prospective Population Study.” Hypertension (Dallas, Tex.: 1979), vol. 46, no. 3, Sept. 2005, pp. 527–32. PubMed, https://doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.0000174988.81829.72.
Liu, Yanxing, et al. “Salicylate Blocks L-Type Calcium Channels in Rat Inferior Colliculus Neurons.” Hearing Research, vol. 205, no. 1–2, July 2005, pp. 271–76. PubMed, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heares.2005.03.028.
Lopes, Karen de Carvalho, et al. “Ménière’s Disease: Molecular Analysis of Aquaporins 2, 3 and Potassium Channel KCNE1 Genes in Brazilian Patients.” Otology & Neurotology: Official Publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology, vol. 37, no. 8, Sept. 2016, pp. 1117–21. PubMed, https://doi.org/10.1097/MAO.0000000000001136.
Lopez-Escamez, Jose A., et al. “Association of a Functional Polymorphism of PTPN22 Encoding a Lymphoid Protein Phosphatase in Bilateral Meniere’s Disease: PTPN22 Encoding in Meniere’s Disease.” The Laryngoscope, vol. 120, no. 1, Jan. 2010, pp. 103–07. DOI.org (Crossref), https://doi.org/10.1002/lary.20650.
Lopez-Escamez, Jose Antonio, et al. “Towards Personalized Medicine in Ménière’s Disease.” F1000Research, vol. 7, Aug. 2018, p. F1000 Faculty Rev-1295. PubMed Central, https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.14417.1.
Marchiori, Luciana Lozza de Moraes, et al. “Interleukin-1 Alpha Gene Polymorphism (IL-1α) and Susceptibility to Tinnitus in the Elderly.” Noise & Health, vol. 21, no. 99, 2019, pp. 77–82. PubMed Central, https://doi.org/10.4103/nah.NAH_67_18.
Megwalu, Uchechukwu C., et al. “The Effects of Melatonin on Tinnitus and Sleep.” Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery: Official Journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 134, no. 2, Feb. 2006, pp. 210–13. PubMed, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.otohns.2005.10.007.
Meniere’s Disease. https://medlineplus.gov/menieresdisease.html. Accessed 13 Apr. 2022.
“Meniere’s Disease – Causes, Symptoms, Treatments.” Healthy Hearing, https://www.healthyhearing.com/help/tinnitus/menieres-disease. Accessed 13 Apr. 2022.
Mori, Nozomu, et al. “Ion Transport Its Regulation in the Endolymphatic Sac: Suggestions for Clinical Aspects of Meniere’s Disease.” European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, vol. 274, no. 4, 2017, pp. 1813–20. PubMed Central, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00405-016-4362-1.
Nakashima, Tsutomu, et al. “Meniere’s Disease.” Nature Reviews Disease Primers, vol. 2, no. 1, May 2016, pp. 1–18. www.nature.com, https://doi.org/10.1038/nrdp.2016.28.
Qin, Danxia, et al. “Histamine H4 Receptor Gene Polymorphisms: A Potential Contributor to Meniere Disease.” BMC Medical Genomics, vol. 12, no. 1, May 2019, p. 71. PubMed, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12920-019-0533-4.
Sand, Philipp G., et al. “Deep Resequencing of the Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Subunit KCNE3 Gene in Chronic Tinnitus.” Behavioral and Brain Functions : BBF, vol. 7, Sept. 2011, p. 39. PubMed Central, https://doi.org/10.1186/1744-9081-7-39.
Santosh, U. P., and M. S. Sudhakar Rao. “Incidence of Hypothyroidism in Meniere’s Disease.” Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research : JCDR, vol. 10, no. 5, May 2016, pp. MC01–3. PubMed Central, https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2016/17587.7759.
Scuto, Maria, et al. “Nutritional Mushroom Treatment in Meniere’s Disease with Coriolus Versicolor: A Rationale for Therapeutic Intervention in Neuroinflammation and Antineurodegeneration.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 21, no. 1, Dec. 2019, p. 284. PubMed Central, https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010284.
Tan, Dun-Xian, et al. “Melatonin as a Potent and Inducible Endogenous Antioxidant: Synthesis and Metabolism.” Molecules, vol. 20, no. 10, Oct. 2015, pp. 18886–906. PubMed Central, https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201018886.
Wang, Li-Chao, et al. “Highly Selective Activation of Heat Shock Protein 70 by Allosteric Regulation Provides an Insight into Efficient Neuroinflammation Inhibition.” EBioMedicine, vol. 23, Aug. 2017, pp. 160–72. PubMed Central, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2017.08.011.
Wang, Weihua, et al. “Neuroinflammation Mediates Noise-Induced Synaptic Imbalance and Tinnitus in Rodent Models.” PLoS Biology, vol. 17, no. 6, June 2019, p. e3000307. PubMed Central, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000307.
Weinreich, Heather M., and Yuri Agrawal. “The Link Between Allergy and Menière’s Disease.” Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 22, no. 3, June 2014, pp. 227–30. PubMed Central, https://doi.org/10.1097/MOO.0000000000000041.
Wu, Cong, et al. “Changes in GABA and Glutamate Receptors on Auditory Cortical Excitatory Neurons in a Rat Model of Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus.” American Journal of Translational Research, vol. 10, no. 12, Dec. 2018, pp. 3941–55. PubMed Central, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6325520/.
Yuce, Salim, et al. “Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) I/D and Alpha-Adducin (ADD1) G460W Gene Polymorphisms in Turkish Patients with Severe Chronic Tinnitus.” The Journal of International Advanced Otology, vol. 12, no. 1, Apr. 2016, pp. 77–81. PubMed, https://doi.org/10.5152/iao.2016.1732.
Debbie Moon is the founder of Genetic Lifehacks. Fascinated by the connections between genes, diet, and health, her goal is to help you understand how to apply genetics to your diet and lifestyle decisions. Debbie has a BS in engineering and an MSc in biological sciences from Clemson University. Debbie combines an engineering mindset with a biological systems approach to help you understand how genetic differences impact your optimal health.